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高雄国立艺术中心高雄国立艺术中心

建筑鸟瞰,aerial view © Iwan Baan

作为台湾近40年来最巨大的文化建设项目,高雄国立艺术中心已于2018年10月正式开幕启用。这座占地35英亩的文化中心是目前世界上最大的单屋檐文化表演类建筑,它包含5个现代化的艺术表演空间,包括可容纳2236个座位的歌剧院、1981个座位的音乐厅、1210个座位的剧场、434个座位的演奏厅以及将建筑与亚热带公园相连接的屋顶露天剧场。

As the largest cultural constructionproject built in Taiwan in the last 40 years, Weiwuying Arts Center hasofficially opened to public in October 2018. The single sweeping buildingcovers a surface area of 35 acres (141,000 sqm) and is set in the spectacular116-acre (470,000 sqm) subtropical park in the heart of Kaohsiung, making itthe world’s largest performing arts centre under one roof as well as Taiwan’smost significant cultural investment in a generation. It incorporates fivestate of the art performance spaces: a 2,236-seat Opera House, a 1,981-seatConcert Hall, a 1,210-seat Playhouse, a 434-seat Recital Hall and an OutdoorTheater linking the building to the park.

河岸视角,view from the waterfront ©NAARO


高雄,人口约300万,位于台湾南部,曾经是一个重要的国际港口,现在是一个现代化、多元化的城市,有着丰富的文化内涵。它不仅是台湾第二大城市,也是世界上最大的海港之一,而且还拥有台风,高温,强降雨和定期地震的剧烈的亚热带气候。 新建的艺术中心必须应对所有这些极端情况。

Kaohsiung is an informal, lively city of almost three millioninhabitants. Not only is it the second largest city in Taiwan and one of theworld’s largest sea ports, but also host to a dramatic sub-tropical climate oftyphoons, high temperatures, heavy rainfall and regular earthquakes. The new140,000 square-metre performance complex must cope with all of theseextremes.  



充满吠犬和榕树的地方
Barking dogs and banyan trees

这座建筑的选址在高雄都会区中心的一处占地65公顷的军事大院内,该地原本打算建成为城市的“中央公园”。 2006年,这里曾是一个带有猎犬的军事用地, 布满了榕树,其扭曲的树干和树枝在数十年间逐渐交织在一起。 枝干在空中芽生长到土壤中,形成了额外的树干,它们分布在一个惊人的广阔区域中,像一个大伞一样。 根据当地人说,亚历山大大帝曾经将他的全部军队庇护在这些树的树冠下。

The location for this building is a former sixty-five hectaremilitary compound in the centre of the metropolitan area of Kaohsiung – a placewhich is intended to become a sort of ‘Central Park’ for the city. When wefirst visit the site in 2006 it is still a fenced-off zone of military barracksoccupied by a lot of wild, barking dogs. It’s also dense with banyan trees,their twisting trunks and branches having gradually interlocked over decades.Their aerial shoots grow down into the soil forming additional trunks,spreading over an astonishingly wide area, and the crowns of these trunksbecome one, like a huge umbrella. According to local legend, Alexander theGreat once sheltered his entire army beneath the crown of a single tree.


这些榕树的形状反映了当地的气候。 它宽大的树冠,遮日晒雨淋,是高雄潮湿空气的完美体现。在亚热带地区,太阳大约在六七点钟下山,在它消失在地平线下的时候,这座城市开始活跃起来。在这暮色中,随着气温的降低,人们在街上散步,购物,在外面吃饭。 在树冠下,人们会进行非正式的表演:跳舞,演奏音乐,表演戏剧或练习太极拳。 它们给这座城市创造一个独有的气氛,这也成为了设计的出发点。

The form of the banyan reflects the local climate. Its widecrown, providing shelter against the sun and rain, is a perfect expression of Kaohsiung’shumid atmosphere. In the sub-tropics the sun sets at around six or seveno’clock and, just as it disappears beneath the horizon, the city comes to life.During these twilight hours as the temperature cools people stroll the streets,shop for their groceries, and eat outside. Under the canopies, as well as underthe trees, informal performances occur: people dance, play music, performplays, or practice Tai Chi. What we see, hear, feel, taste and smell on thisfirst trip to Taiwan inspires us to somehow harness this unique urbanatmosphere.






公园的延续
A continuation of the park

Mecanoo想知道榕树是否可以创建出一个正式和非正式的表演空间。这样一来,这座建筑就会24小时充满生机,成为公园的自然延续。好的公共建筑需要好的公共空间,这是Mecanoo对待城市建筑的核心理念。例如伯明翰下沉的圆形剧场图书馆,或是拉洛特贾德勒莱达的城市舞台,利用相邻建筑的楼梯作为观众席。 这三座建筑的形式品质有很大不同,但它们有一个共同点:它们完美地匹配了各自的地理位置,文化和气候。

We wonder whether the banyan tree could help us to create acombination of formal and informal performance spaces. In this way the buildingwould be full of life around the clock; a natural continuation of the park. Weknow that good public buildings need good public space, a mantra which iscentral to our approach to civic architecture: think of the Library ofBirmingham’s sunken amphitheatre, or La Llotja de Lleida’s urban stage beneatha cantilever, using the stairs of an adjacent building as audience seating. Theformal qualities of these three buildings are very different but they have onething in common: they are a perfect match with their respective locations,cultures and climates.

榕树的开放、保护形状成为设计的跳板。其广阔的遮蔽皇冠变成了榕树广场,这是一个半封闭的公共空间,在这里,冷风可以自由流动。在四个正式的表演大厅之间,形成了支撑起伏屋顶的“树干”,地面上升到5米的高度,它成为了公园景观的一部分。在屋顶与地面接触的地方,建筑变成了一个圆形剧场,向周围的公园开放,反过来,公园又成为它的舞台和场地。

The open, protective shape of the banyan tree becomes aspringboard for the design. Its expansive sheltered crown becomes the BanyanPlaza, a partially enclosed public space where the cooling wind can freelyflow. Between the four formal performance halls, which form the ‘trunks’ thatsupport the undulating roof, a topography rising from ground level to plus fivemetres becomes part of the park’s landscape. Where the roof touches the earththe building becomes an amphitheatre, open towards the surrounding parklandwhich, in turn, becomes both its stage and its set.




每个演出场地和门厅都有自己独特的氛围,共同创造出一个流畅相连的空间。榕树广场的墙壁和连续的天花板表面是中性的白色,允许人造光和投影来改变气氛。12盏吊灯悬挂在滚滚的广场上,使建筑成为了夜晚的装饰物!

Each performance venue and foyer has its own unique atmosphereand together create one fluidly connected space. The walls and continuousceiling surface of the Banyan Plaza is a neutral white, allowing for artificiallight and projections to alter the mood. With twelve chandeliers suspendedagainst the billowing form of the plaza, the building can really dress up forthe night!



一座露天的剧场如鸟巢般镶嵌在文化中心的屋顶上,其弧线形的结构一直连接至地面,使围绕在其周围的公园变成天然的舞台。设计充分考虑了当地的亚热带气候,开放式的结构能够让微风自由地穿过榕树广场。室内和室外空间的无缝衔接为正式和非正式的表演活动提供了交织和互动的机会。

An open-air theatre nestles on the roof where the structure curves to the ground, with the surrounding park forming the stage. Designed with the subtropical climate in mind, the open structure allows the wind to blow freely through Banyan Plaza. The seamless flow between interior and exterior creates opportunities for crossovers between formal and informal performances.




四个表演厅
The four halls

四个表演厅中的每一个都有自己的声学挑战,设计团队与声学家Albert Xu合作。 构建了一个1:10比例模型,以测试最复杂的场地(可容纳1981个座位的音乐厅)的性能。 尽管规模如此之大,他们还是希望剧院具有亲切的感觉。 如果每个听众都能看到钢琴家的手,那不是很好吗? 剧院的阶梯选择了葡萄园的形状,以舞台为中心,使不同楼层高度的露台环绕着讲台。 舞台四面都有座位,观众非常靠近表演舞台。 观众从一楼进入排队的橡树地板,螺旋形的坡道将他们引向黄金座位。

Each of the four performance halls has its own acousticchallenge, and so we collaborate with acoustician Albert Xu. He constructs a1:10 scale model to test the performance of the most complicated venue: the1,981-seat Concert Hall. Despite its size we want the theatre to have anintimate feel. Wouldn’t it be great if every member of the audience could seethe hands of the pianist? We choose the shape of a stepped vineyard with astage at its centre, so that terraces at different floor heights encircle thepodium. With seating on all sides of the stage, the audience is in closeproximity to the performance itself. The public enters the oak-lined from theground floor and spiraling ramps lead them to their golden seats.

拥有2236个座位的歌剧院以马蹄形布置,带有三个环形阳台。座椅采用红色和紫色织物的混合物进行装饰,并带有台湾花卉图案,与深色墙壁形成对比。该剧院不仅适合拥有70多个音乐家的西方歌剧团,而且还可以通过操纵悬垂的声学顶篷在声学上适应中国戏曲。

The 2,236-seat Opera House is arranged in the form of ahorseshoe with three circled balconies. The seating is upholstered in a mixtureof red and purple fabrics with a pattern of Taiwanese flowers, contrasting withthe darker walls. This theatre is not only suitable for Western opera, with anorchestra of over seventy musicians, but can also be acoustically adapted toaccommodate Chinese opera by manoeuvring a suspended acoustic canopy.

这座剧场有1210个座位,采用Mecanoo蓝色,旨在举办各种戏剧和舞蹈表演。灵活性是这个多功能空间设计的核心元素。这种布局是可调整的,可以从一个典型的观众在前面的舞台,到一个三面观众的舞台。

The Playhouse, with its 1,210 seats in Mecanoo Blue, isdesigned to host a variety of drama and dance performances. Flexibility is thecore element in the design of this multifunctional space. The layout isadaptable and can be changed from a typical proscenium stage with the audiencein front, to a thrust stage with the audience on three sides.

434个座位的独奏厅是四座独奏厅中气氛最为亲密的。它的不对称构图和座位跨越两个层次,是为室内音乐和独奏表演设计的。这些座位和音乐厅一样是金色的,墙上挂着橡木线。这个大厅的上部由一圈吸音窗帘围起来,允许空间内的混响时间根据特定类型的表演进行调节。

The 434-seat Recital Hall has the most intimate atmosphere ofthe four. With its asymmetrical composition and seating across two levels, itis designed for chamber music and recital performances. The seats have the samegolden fabric as the Concert Hall and oak lines the walls. The upper part ofthis hall is enclosed by a circle of sound absorbing curtains, allowing for thereverberation time within the space to be tuned to specific types ofperformance.







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