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LANDPROCESS | 泰国国立法政城市屋顶农场LANDPROCESS | 泰国国立法政城市屋顶农场

Thammasat Urban Farming Rooftop泰国国立法政城市屋顶农场


气候危机所带来的粮食和水资源短缺对人类文明构成了巨大威胁。曼谷以及整个东南亚地区的城市,曾是粮食资源十分丰富的农业社会,而现在却成为了因城市化稻米产区从而失去管制的受害者。农田变成了充斥着农药毒素的工业化农场,生态系统被污染,公众健康和居民生活被彻底忽视掉。
Amidstthe climate crisis, food and water scarcity pose tremendous threats to humancivilization. Once abundant agrarian societies rich with food sources, Bangkokand cities across Southeast Asia have become victims of unregulatedurbanization on rice-producing regions. Agricultural lands have turned into pesticide-ladenindustrialized farms, polluting ecosystems with no regard for public health andpeople’s livelihood.


基于对空置着的236806平方米屋顶空间的再利用,景观设计师为泰国国立法政大学提出了一个关于应对气候危机的解决方案,并将这个构想付诸于实践——建造一处亚洲最大的有机屋顶农场:泰国国立法政城市屋顶农场(人造草坪)。结合现代景观建筑特点和传统梯田的农业独创性,这一片屋顶草坪为整座校园创造了一个极具包容性的循环经济系统,它将可持续食品生产、可再生能源、有机废物、水资源循环以及公共空间等各个元素融于一体。
Repurposing236,806 sq. ft. of wasted rooftop space, the landscape architect helpedThammasat University envision and implement a climate solution with Asia’slargest organic rooftop farm—Thammasat Urban Rooftop Farm (TURF). Integratingmodern landscape architecture with the agricultural ingenuity of traditionalrice terraces, TURF creates an inclusive circular economy for the campus,incorporating sustainable food production, renewable energy, organicwaste, water management and public space for all.


从闲置屋顶到人工梯田RICE TERRACES FROM AMOUNTAIN
受到东南亚山区传统农业实践所具备的独创性的启发,景观设计师将梯田的土方工程与现代绿色屋顶技术相结合;这一片236806平方的屋顶与传统的混凝土屋顶相比,层叠式结构减缓径流的效率可提高20倍。
Inspiredby the ingenuity of traditional agricultural practices on mountainous terrainsacross Southeast Asia, TURF’s landscape architect integrated the earthwork ofrice terraces with modern green roof technology. The 236,806 sq. ft. cascadingrooftop can slow down runoff up to 20 times more efficiently than aconventional concrete rooftop.


雨水沿着斜坡蜿蜒而下,每一层草坪都从前面的单元收集径流,形成独特的微流域集群,功能不限于沿着露台协助吸收、过滤和净化雨水,同时为校园提供能够种植食材的表面。在这一段径流旅程结束时,将会抵达每一个径流边翼上静候着的4座储水池;它们的总容纳水量可达30955570加仑,不仅显著降低了场地流失的雨水量,同时能够预防可能会发生的洪旱灾害。设计师由此提出了这种解决方案:在强风暴期间提前储存足够的径流水,以备未来的特殊时期使用。
As rainwaterzigzags down the slopes, each level of TURF harvests runoff from the previouscell, forming unique clusters of micro-watersheds along the terrace to helpingabsorb, filter and purify rainwater while growing food for the campus. By theend of its journey, four retention ponds await on each wing, capable of holdingup to 3,095,570 gallons of water once combined. These ponds significantlyreduce the volume of stormwater leaving the site while mitigating unexpectedflood and drought disasters. They present a solution to storing excessiverunoff during intense storms for future use during dry spells.


通过在储水池中对雨水进行回收再利用,屋顶的人造草坪完成了出色的现场雨水管理,最大程度地减少了食品生产中的水资源浪费。太阳能泵将储存的水向上推进从而实现屋顶上的植被灌溉;除此之外,水稻和蔬菜种植园的多层阶结构不仅丰富了土壤营养度,减缓了暴雨期间会造成的土壤流失,亦可以有效防止被污染的径流或是空气中的微粒毒素,进入排水系统和天然水体中。
Reusingrestoring water at four retention ponds, the TURF manages on-site watermanagement to minimize water footprint on food production. A solar-powered pumppushes stored water upward for roof irrigation. Furthermore, the cascadinglayers of rice and vegetable plantations enrich the soil’s nutrition, reducingthe amount of soil mass lost during heavy rainfall. This prevents pollutedrunoff as well as particulate airborne toxins from entering drainage systemsand natural water bodies.


从绿色屋顶到养育社区FEEDING PEOPLE FROM A SINGLEROOFTOP
时至今日,城市化发展导致耕地面积的迅速消耗,使食物来源进一步远离了城市和消费者。预测到2050年,全球80%的人口将居住在城市中。于是为了确保全球粮食安全,优先考虑人类和环境健康,城市必须利用其浪费的空间实现更高效同时能可持续地生产粮食。
Today,urbanization has rapidly consumed agricultural lands, pushing food sourcesfurther away from cities and their consumers. By 2050, 80 percent of theworld’s population will live in cities. To ensure global food security, andprioritize human and environmental health, cities must utilize wasted urbanspaces to produce food efficiently and sustainably.


现如今,泰国已成为世界上五大农药进口国之一,由于集约化单作农业规模持续扩大,对天然食物来源的搜寻需求急速增长,同时越来越严重的致命化学有毒废物弥留,泰国国立法政城市屋顶农场项目决定将75,300平方英尺的废弃混凝土屋顶替换为城市有机农场,从而促进本地可持续农业发展,提高作物多样性,建立良性的小型农场系统,最终实现供给营养的最大化改善。
Today,Thailand ranks as one of the top five importers of pesticides in the world. Intensivemonocrop agriculture continues to expand, scouring natural food sources andleaving trails of deadly chemical toxic waste behind. By replacing 75,300 sq.ft. of what would have been another wasted concrete rooftop with an urbanorganic farm, the TURF promotes sustainable agriculture, crop diversity, smallfarm systems as well as improved nutrition.


而泰国国立法政城市屋顶农场的主要功能,除了恢复城市生物多样性,应对即将到来的气候危机,它不仅为这里的人们提供了基本的食物,也为他们提供了更珍贵的养料;高达40多种可食用的食材种类,包括TU学者培育出的原始水稻、本地蔬菜、草本植物、果树及其他,从耐水品种到抗旱品种应有尽有——每一种都完美地适应由光照,屋顶的曲率度和水流所创造出的,颇具当地特色的微气候。
Inaddition to restoring urban biodiversity and tackling forthcoming climateirregularities, the urban farm not only feeds people, but also nourishes them.A variety of 40 edible species—including an original rice strain bred by TUacademics, indigenous vegetables and herbs, fruit trees and more—range fromwater-tolerant to drought-resistant. Each is suited to the unique microclimatecreated by the sunlight exposure, curvature and water flow of the roof’selevation.


而在屋顶的人造草坪之下,是一家咖啡馆,亦可称之为校园和公共社区的绿色食堂——从农场生产出的新鲜农产品将于此处被直接供应到人们的餐桌上。人造草坪每年为社区提供高达20吨的有机食品,等量替换相当于一年13万顿饭;餐厅极靠近人造草坪,是这条从开始到结束,自始至终保证最小化浪费和二氧化碳排放的,可持续食品生产链条的重要节点,以此完成整个系统的良性循环;而在一次循环结束时,所有的有机废物都将被回收,作为天然的有机堆肥,为下一个收获季节的作物生长和成熟继续做着重要贡献。
BeneathTURF, a café—a green canteen for the campus and community—serves fresh producefrom the farm right to the table. TURF provides up to 20 tons of organic foodto the community each year, equating to 130,000 meals annually. In closeproximity to TURF, the canteen completes the holistic and sustainable foodproduction system, reducing waste and CO2 emissions from start to finish. Bythe end of the cycle, all organic waste is recycled back as compost tofertilize crops for the next harvest.


从闲置屋顶到供能社区POWERING A COMMUNITY FROM ANUNUSED ROOFTOP
这所大学的绿色屋顶每小时可以产生50万瓦(相当于2.5万个电灯泡)的电力,它可以通过自给自足进行发电,从而完成对于整个农场的灌溉,并为屋顶下面的建筑提供充足的电力;占总空间约16%,覆盖总面积达38,373平方米的太阳能电池板被放置于屋顶的南侧,通过持续暴露在阳光之下,从而实现了最理想的循环能源发电效果。
Capableof producing up to 500,000 watts (an equivalent of 25,000 electric light bulbs)per hour, the University’s green roof can generate its own electricity toirrigate the urban farm and power the building beneath it. For optimal energygeneration, the 38,373 sq. ft. of solar panels—covering 16 percent of thespace—are placed on the roof's southern side for continuous exposure tosunlight.


随着绿色能源和被动冷却技术的出现,该项目屋顶的人造草坪开始摆脱对化石燃料的依赖;通过对建筑内外的空气进行主动冷却,减少了与空调相关的能源消耗以及由此产生的温室气体排放量,提高了保温性能——将整体建筑的温度保持在了最为舒适的水平。
Withgreen power and passive cooling, TURF pivots away from reliance on fossilfuels. By cooling air both inside and outside the building, it reducesgreenhouse gas emissions from energy consumption related to air conditioningand also improves insulation to retain a cool temperature for building.


从层叠屋顶到聚集空间CASCADING ROOF AS PUBLICSPACE
通过嵌入傍山建筑以及最大限度利用其倾斜面,可以说泰国国立法政城市屋顶农场,利用当地天然地形的层级结构,创建了一处多功能公共空间。斜坡上的12处独立设计的功能区作椭圆构型的户外教室之用,而与此同时,分散在蜿蜒而上的楼梯旁的小型活动区,则为人们提供更为紧密的社交空间,和通往作物的快捷通道。爬到山顶的游客可以在屋顶的人造草坪上,俯瞰辽阔的天空之下,是以城市农场作为中心向外延伸开去的360度曼谷全景。一个大型圆形剧场为游人们提供了一处更为便利,更为灵活的娱乐和教育空间。
Bycarving into the mountainous architecture and maximizing the use of theinclined surface, TURF utilizes every level of the terrain to createmulti-functional public spaces. Twelve individually designed areas on theslopes serve as oval-shaped outdoor classrooms, while small pockets dispersedalong the staircases provide intimate social spaces and access to the crops.TURF rewards those who climb to the top with a 360-degree panoramic view of theBangkok centered in an urban farm and under the open sky. A large amphitheaterprovides an accessible and flexible recreational and educational space for allvisitors.



当茂盛的绿色变成干枯的棕色,人造草坪是一个具有现实意义同时充满希望的解决方案:它让现代城市居民回归到祖先的古老农业耕作中去。而景观设计师便是受到这种当地独创性的启发,由此提出并实施了这一更具整体性的方法。经历了几代农民,他们从与他们一起生活的土地和水中学到了——城市屋顶农场中留存和呈现的,是泰国的独特文化,景观和土壤的历史,在建设未来的可持续城市的过程中,它当之无愧,是社区和城市建设者学习如何适应气候挑战的宝贵经验。
Aslush green turns to dry brown, TURF is a realistic, but hopeful solution thatputs modern urban dwellers back in tune with ancestral agricultural practices.The landscape architect implemented a holistic approach inspired by localingenuity. Carried on through several generations of farmers who learned fromthe land and water they lived with—TURF holds with it the history of Thaiculture, landscape and native soil, embedded as lessons to communities and citybuilders on how to adapt to and embrace climate challenges in building thesustainable cities of the future.

项目名称:泰国国立法政城市屋顶农场Thammasat Green Roof Farm
项目位置:泰国国立法政大学Thammasat University,Rangsit Campus, Bangkok, Thailand
完成时间:2019年12月
屋顶面积:22,000 平方米
总体面积:60,000 平方米
项目客户:泰国国立法政大学Thammasat University
景观及屋顶绿化设计:LANDPROCESS (Kotchakorn Voraakhom)
建筑团队:Arsom Slip Institute ofthe Arts
结构工程:PRE-BUILT PUBLIC COMPANY LIMITED
系统工程:TPM ConsultantsCo., Ltd
摄影提供:LANDPROCESS
承包商:CM49