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Heatherwick Studio | 纽约哈德逊河小岛公园Heatherwick Studio | 纽约哈德逊河小岛公园

本帖最后由 陶竞搏 于 2021-6-18 10:55 编辑


小岛夜景 Little Island at night © Michael Grimm

“小岛”公园于美国时间2021年5月21日正式向公众开放。当2014年首次提出小岛的概念时,周围就不乏批评之声。这个项目已经酝酿了七年,并克服了多起诉讼。到如今2021年,小岛已成为纽约市最令人期待的开放项目。这也是自新冠疫情爆发以来首批开放的新公园之一。

Little Island was opened to the public on May 21, 2021. When the idea of Little Island was first floated in 2014, there was no shortage of criticism to go around.The project has been seven years in the making and has overcome multiple lawsuits.Fast-forward to 2021, the park-that-almost-wasn't is perhaps NYC’s most anticipated opening. It is also one of the first new parks to open since the pandemic onset.

Barry Diller,这位传媒大亨和他的妻子 Diane von Furstenberg捐赠超过2.6亿美元,在哈德逊河上建造这处创新的公园,今年将会有约500场活动和表演。

Barry Diller,this media mogul and his wife Diane von Furstenberg have donated more than $260 million to build an innovative public park on the Hudson River that will see about 500 events and performances this year.

Above source:WSJ. MAGAZINE, Urbanize NYC


鸟瞰小岛 Aerial View © Timothy Schenck, 2021

“小岛”是一处位于哈德逊河上、含有三个表演场地的新建公园。它被设计成人类和野生动物的避风港,这是一片郁郁葱葱的绿洲,由雕塑般的花钵将其支撑在水面之上,通过步桥,小岛距离曼哈顿下西区只有一段很短的步行距离。

Little Island is a new public park that shelters three new performance venues on the Hudson River. Designed as a haven for people and wildlife, it is a green oasis, held above the water by sculptural planters, and located just a short walk across a gangplank from Manhattan’s Lower West Side.


从第十一大道望向小岛 View from 11th Ave © Timothy Schenck, 2021

最初Heatherwick Studio是受慈善家Barry Diller和哈德逊河公园信托基金会的邀请,为曼哈顿西南部的新码头建造一处公共场所。设计团队并没有在哈德逊河公园设计一处装饰建筑,他们看到了一个机会,能重新思考和定义码头。设计的出发点不是结构,而是游客的体验:身处水面上的兴奋感,远离城市、沉浸在绿意中的感觉——灵感来自中央公园,在那里,人会忘记自己正身处美国人口最密集的城市之中。

Heatherwick Studio was initially invited by philanthropist Barry Diller and the Hudson River Park Trust to create a pavilion for a new pier off the south-west of Manhattan. Instead of designing a decorative object to sit in the Hudson River Park, the design team saw an opportunity to rethink what a pier could be. The starting point was not the structure, but the experience for visitors: the excitement of being over the water, the feeling of leaving the city behind and being immersed in greenery – inspired by Central Park, where it’s possible to forget that you are in the midst of the most densely populated city in the United States.


小岛总平面 Little Island Site plan © Timothy Schenck, 2021

码头通常是平的,以便船只的停靠,但它们必须如此吗?与曼哈顿平坦的街道形成鲜明对比,设计团队希望能为这座城市创造一种新的地形,可以抬升以塑造各种空间。

Piers were traditionally flat to allow boats to dock, but did they have to be? In contrast to the flat streets of Manhattan, the design team wanted to create a new topography for the city, which could rise up to shape a variety of spaces.

最初方案仿若一片漂浮在水面上卷曲的叶子,它的叶脉像肋拱一样在边缘抬升,提供庇护。把公园抬升于地基之上的想法来自于水中现存的木桩,这些木桩是过去从曼哈顿海岸线延伸出来的许多码头的遗留物。在露出可见的桩顶之下,这些木桩已经成为海洋生物的重要栖息地,也是受保护的鱼类繁殖地。

The first iteration was a curled leaf form floating on the water, its veins rising like ribs at the edges to shelter the space from the wind. The idea of raising the park on its foundations came from the existing wooden piles in the water, remnants of the many piers that used to extend from the shoreline of Manhattan. Beneath the visible tips of the wood, the piles have become an important habitat for marine life and are a protected breeding ground for fish.



水中现存木桩 Existing wooden piles in the water © Timothy Schenck, 2021

纽约的活力表演空间

A DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE SPACE FOR NEW YORK


Heatherwick Studio设想这是一个具有完整体验性的、凝聚力的单体构筑物,而非将不相关的元素拼凑在一起。任何类型的码头,新的桩柱支撑都是必要的。这些桩柱不再只是用于支撑平台的支柱,而是成为了平台本身——它们延伸至花钵并与之融为一体,共同构成了公园的表面。

Heatherwick Studio envisaged the pier as a complete experience; a single, cohesive object, rather than unrelated elements stuck together. New piles would be necessary to support any type of pier. Instead of sticks holding up a deck, the piles become the deck – they extend into planters that join together to create the park’s surface.


桩柱的搭建 Construction of piles © Timothy Schenck, 2017


桩柱延伸至花钵并与之融为一体,共同构成了公园的表面 The piles extend into planters that join together to create the park’s surface © Timothy Schenck, 2021

桩柱的高度变化创造了公园的轮廓外形:码头的一角被抬高,阳光可照射到海洋生物栖息地;边缘逐渐下降,形成了山丘、观景台,同时开辟出一个天然圆形露天剧场,用于表演活动。这样,码头和它的支撑结构形成了一个整体。

The height of the piles varies to create the park’s contours: the corner of the pier is lifted to allow sunlight to reach the marine habitat, and the edge falls to define hills, viewpoints and to carve out a natural amphitheater for performances. In this way, the pier and its supporting structure are one.


桩柱的高度变化,创造了公园的轮廓外形 The height of the piles varies to create the park’s contours © Timothy Schenck, 2021


小岛最高点 Highest point © Timothy Schenck, 2021


丰富的地形 Diverse terrain © Timothy Schenck, 2021

为了确定花钵的形状,设计团队将目光投向了大自然,借鉴了河流结冰时在木桩周边形成的马赛克状的冰块,Heatherwick Studio用镶嵌花样的纹理来重新诠释,这种纹理看似关联,实际是由可以标准化制造的重复元素(单元)组成。

To determine the pots’ form, the design team looked to nature, and the mosaic of ice that forms around the wooden piles when the river freezes. The studio reinterpreted this in a tessellated pattern that appears organic, but uses repeated elements that could be standardised for fabrication.


花钵外形 Pots’ form © Timothy Schenck, 2021

在小岛最显眼的地方,花钵的安放角度和重复方式都经过了周密的考量。为了让混凝土结构具有顺滑质感,Heatherwick Studio与当地的制造商密切合作。船只将预制构件运输到现场并进行组装,最大限度地减少了对城市的干扰。

Care was taken to vary the angle and repetition of pots at the perimeter, where they were most visible. To give the structural concrete a smooth, tactile quality, Heatherwick Studio worked closely with a local fabricator. The precast components were transported by boats and assembled on site, minimising disruption to the city.


现场组装 On-site assembly © Timothy Schenck, 2017

为了强调远离城市的感觉,小岛的占地坐落在54和56号码头之间的水中央。通过两个无障碍的步桥进入,整个小岛公园与街道网格的方向相呼应。

To emphasise the feeling of escape, Little Island’s footprint sits in the middle of the water between piers 54 and 56. Access is via two accessible ‘gangplanks’, and oriented in a continuation of the street grid.


小岛公园与街道网格的方向相呼应 Little Island oriented in a continuation of the street grid © Heatherwick Studio


步桥 Gangplank © Timothy Schenck, 2021


日落下的步桥 Gangplank at sunset © Alexi Rosenfeld, Getty Images

在小岛里面,人通过蜿蜒小路穿过树木和草坪,能看到隐藏的意想不到的景色。公园整合了三个表演空间,恢复了因54号码头年久失修而失去的娱乐场所。在最远的边缘处,山丘和周围树木遮掩着一处经过声学优化的700座圆形露天剧场,剧场配有天然石质座位——舞台背景是哈德逊河壮观的日落和自由女神像景色。南面是一个更私密的200座舞台。中心的场地功能灵活,可容纳更大规模的活动——其硬质铺装也采取与花钵同样的镶嵌图案。

Inside, paths wind through trees and grassy seating areas to hidden, unexpected views. Restoring the entertainment venue that was lost when Pier 54 fell into disrepair, the park integrates three performance spaces. On the furthest edge, sheltered by the hills and surrounding trees, is an acoustically-optimised 700-seat amphitheatre with natural stone seating – its stage is set against the spectacular backdrop of sunset over the Hudson River and views of the Statue of Liberty. To the south is a more intimate, 200-seat spoken word stage. In the centre is a flexible venue with capacity for larger scale events – its hard paving brings to the surface the tessellated pattern of the piles.


进入小岛 Park entrance © Angela Weiss, Getty Images


700座圆形露天剧场 700-seat amphitheatre ©Timothy Schenck, 2021


圆形露天剧场视野 Amphitheatre view © China News Service, Getty Images


中央广场 The Play Ground © Timothy Schenck, 2021

整个小岛上大约有400种不同种类的树木、灌木、草和多年生植物,至少有100种不同种类的树木能适应纽约的气候。

There are roughly 400 different species of trees, shrubs, grasses and perennials throughout Little Island and at least 100 different species of trees through the park that are suited to the New York climate.


不同种类的树木和植物 Different species of indigenous trees and plants © Timothy Schenck,2021

岛上的每个角落都代表着不同的小气候,这取决于地形、阳光照射和风模式。
Each corner of the island represents a different microclimate depending on the topography, sun exposure and wind patterns.


岛上的每个角落都代表着不同的小气候 Each corner of the island represents a different microclimate © Timothy Schenck, 2021

剧院需要后台空间,但设计团队不想用一栋建筑来打断公园的连续感。解决方案是通过结构:最高的桩柱将荷载转移到较低的桩柱上,从而在平台下方形成一个空隙。在这地下空间,基柱显露出来,并在水面上建造了一个观景台,可以从一个独特视角看码头和河流,同时将设施隐藏在起伏的平台下方。从绿植的呈现到每个剧院座位的观赏视野,团队深思熟虑了人在小岛上方方面面的体验。因其独特的剧场和公园空间结合,小岛成为曼哈顿生活节奏的停顿;在这里,纽约市民和游客可以过河躺在树下,观看表演,欣赏日落,感受着与水、自然世界的联系。

The theatre needed back-of-house spaces, but the design team didn’t want to interrupt the park with a building. The solution came through the structure: the tallest piles transfer the load to lower piles, allowing a void to be created beneath the deck. In this undercroft, the foundations are revealed and a viewing platform is created above the water, allowing a unique perspective of the pier and river, while concealing the facilities on a discreet deck. Every aspect of the experience has been considered, from the way the greenery unfolds on the approach to the view from each theatre seat. With its unique mix of venues and parkland, Little Island is a pause in the pace of Manhattan; a place where New Yorkers and visitors can cross the river to lie under a tree, watch a performance, catch the sunset and feel connected to the water and natural world.


休闲的市民与游客 Leisure citizens and tourists © Timothy Schenck, 2021


照明 Lighting © Timothy Schenck, 2021

项目图纸


小岛四季变化平面图 General plan in four seasons © Heatherwick Studio & MNLA


结构总平 General Plan-structure © Heatherwick Studio


地下空间总平 General plan-undercroft plan © Heatherwick Studio


地形剖面 Geological Section © Heatherwick Studio & MNLA



剖面A-A Section A-A © Heatherwick Studio & MNLA



剖面B-B Section B-B © Heatherwick Studio & MNLA



花钵细部剖面 Detail pot section © Heatherwick Studio & MNLA



花钵轴测图 Axonometric © Heatherwick Studio


项目名称:Little Island
项目位置:美国纽约
项目面积:11000 平方米
项目业主:Hudson River Park Trust (HRPT) & Pier 55 Project Fund (P55P)
项目设计:Heatherwick Studio
设计总监:Thomas Heatherwick
结构工程:Arup
景观设计:MNLA
完成时间:2021年5月

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